Monday, March 31, 2008

1 April

April 1 is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 274 days remaining until the end of the year. April 1 is most notable in the Western world for being April Fools' Day.

527 - Byzantine Emperor Justin I names his nephew Justinian I as co-ruler and successor to the throne.
1318 - Berwick-upon-Tweed is captured by the Scottish from the English.
1340 - Niels Ebbesen kills Gerhard III of Holstein in his bedroom, ending the 1332-1340 interregnum in Denmark.
1572 - In the Eighty Years' War, the Watergeuzen capture Brielle from the Spaniards, gaining the first foothold on land for what would become the Dutch Republic.
1789 - In New York City, the United States House of Representatives holds its first quorum and elects Frederick Muhlenberg of Pennsylvania as its first House Speaker.
1826 - Samuel Morey patents the internal combustion engine.
1854 - Hard Times begins serialisation in Charles Dickens magazine, Household Words.
1857 - Herman Melville publishes The Confidence-Man.
1865 - American Civil War: Battle of Five Forks - In Siege of Petersburg, Confederate General Robert E. Lee begins his final offensive.
1867 - Singapore becomes a British crown colony.
1873 - The British steamer SS Atlantic sinks off Nova Scotia, killing 547.
1891 - The Wrigley Company is founded in Chicago, Illinois.
1912 - The Greek athlete Konstantinos Tsiklitiras breaks the world record in standing long jump jumping 3.47 meters.
1918 - The Royal Air Force is created by merging the Royal Flying Corps and the Royal Naval Air Service.
1924 - Adolf Hitler is sentenced to five years in jail for his participation in the "Beer Hall Putsch." However, he spends only nine months in jail, during which he writes the book Mein Kampf.
1924 - First revenue flight for Belgium's Sabena Airlines
1924 - The Royal Canadian Air Force is formed.
1933 - The recently elected Nazis under Julius Streicher organize a one-day boycott of all Jewish-owned businesses in Germany, ushering in the series of anti-Semitic acts that will be known as the Holocaust.
1936 - Orissa Formation of the Indian state orissa(1936), formerly known as UTKAL.
1937 - Aden becomes a British crown colony.
1939 - Generalísimo Francisco Franco of the Spanish State announced the end of the Spanish Civil War, when the last of the Republican forces surrendered.
1941 - The Blockade Runner Badge for German navy is instituted.
1944 - Accidental American bombing of the Swiss city of Schaffhausen. The bombers were lost.
1945 - World War II: Operation Iceberg - United States troops land on Okinawa in the last campaign of the war.
1946 - Aleutian Island earthquake: A 7.8 magnitude earthquake near the Aleutian Islands creates a tsunami that strikes the Hawaiian Islands killing 159 (mostly in Hilo, Hawaii).
1946 - Formation of the Malayan Union.
1948 - Cold War: Berlin Airlift - Military forces, under direction of the Soviet-controlled government in East Germany, set-up a land blockade of West Berlin.
1948 - Faroe Islands receive autonomy from Denmark.
1949 - Chinese Civil War: Communist Party of China hold unsuccessful peace talks with the Kuomintang in Beijing, after three years of fighting.
1949 - The twenty-six counties of the Irish Free State become the Republic of Ireland.
1954 - President Dwight D. Eisenhower authorizes the creation of the United States Air Force Academy in Colorado.
1955 - The EOKA rebellion starts in Cyprus, aiming at the island's independence from the United Kingdom.
1963 - The Soap Opera General Hospital debuted
1967 - The United States Department of Transportation begins operation.
1969 - The Hawker Siddeley Harrier enters service with the RAF.
1970 - President Richard Nixon signs the Public Health Cigarette Smoking Act into law, requiring surgeon general's warnings on tobacco products and banning cigarette advertisements on television and radio in the United States starting on January 1, 1971.
1973 - Project Tiger, a tiger conservation project, is launched in the Corbett National Park, India.
1974 - In the United Kingdom, the Metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties come into being.
1976 - Apple Computer is formed by Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak.
1976 - Conrail takes over operations from six bankrupt railroads in the northeastern U.S..
1976 - Jovian-Plutonian gravitational effect first reported by the astronomer Patrick Moore
1978 - Philippine College of Commerce, through a presidential decree, was converted to Polytechnic University of the Philippines.
1979 - Iran's government becomes an Islamic Republic by a 98% vote, overthrowing the Shah officially.
1980 - New York City's Transit Worker Union 100 goes on strike, lasting 11 days.
1981 - Daylight saving time is introduced in the USSR.
1989 - Margaret Thatcher's new local government tax, the Community Charge (commonly known as the 'poll tax'), was introduced in Scotland.
1996 - The Halifax Regional Municipality in Nova Scotia was created.
1999 - Nunavut is established as a Canadian territory carved from the eastern part of the Northwest Territories.
2001 - An EP-3E United States Navy plane collides with a Chinese People's Liberation Army fighter jet. The Navy crew makes an emergency landing in Hainan, People's Republic of China and is detained. See Hainan Island incident.
2001 - Former president of Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Slobodan Milošević surrenders to police special forces, to be tried on charges of war crimes.
2001 - Same-sex marriage comes into force in the Netherlands, which is the first country to allow it.
2002 - The Netherlands legalizes euthanasia, becoming the first nation in the world to do so.
2006 - The Serious Organised Crime Agency, dubbed the 'British FBI', is created in the United Kingdom.

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Sunday, March 2, 2008


Tuesday is the day of the week between Monday and Wednesday. The name comes from Middle English Twisday, from Old English Tiwes dæg, named after the Nordic god Tyr, who was the equivalent of the Roman war god Mars, and Greek god Ares.

In Latin, it is called Martis dies which means "Mars' Day". In Romance languages except Portuguese, the word for "Tuesday" is similar to the Latin name: mardi in French, martes in Spanish, martedì in Italian, dimarts in Catalan, and marţi in Romanian.

Portuguese uses numbers instead of pagan names and so their word for "Tuesday" is terça-feira (the third day).

The English and Scandinavian names are derived from the Nordic god Týr (Old English Tiw):

* Old Frisian: tîesdei
o Modern West Frisian: tiisdei
* Old English: tíwesdæg
o Anglo-Norman:
o Middle English: tíesdæi, tywesdai, twysday
o Early Modern English: towesday, Twesdaie, Tyisday, Tiseday,
o Modern English: Tuesday
* Old High German: zîestag
o Middle High German: zîstag
o Alemannic German: ziischtig
* Old Norse: týrsdagr
o Swedish: Tisdag
o Danish: Tirsdag
o Norwegian: Tirsdag or Tysdag
o Icelandic: Týsdagur

The German word Dienstag, as well as Low German Dingsdag, Deensdag and Dutch Dinsdag (from the 13th century, MHG dinsdag, dinsedag, dincetag, dinstag, dingstag) is probably due to interpretation as dies judicii (thing day) or dies census in popular etymology (Grimm). Another possibility is direct derivation from the god referred to by the Romans as Mars Thingsus, the god of the thing, which could likely be Tyr, as well.[citation needed]

The speech of Old Bavaria, also from the 13th century, used ertag (erihtag, erehtag, erchtag, erichtag, erntag), from which Jacob Grimm in Deutsche Mythologie postulated Ear as an epithet of Ziu.

The Russian word for "Tuesday" is vtórnik, meaning "second"; that is, counting Tuesday as the second day of the week.

Quakers traditionally referred to Tuesday as "Third Day" eschewing the pagan origin of the English name "Tuesday". This has also been the custom in Iceland since about the 11th century when Jón Ögmundsson changed it to Þriðjudagur, meaning "Third Day".[citation needed]

In the Greek world, Tuesday (the day of the week of the Fall of Constantinople) is considered an unlucky day. The same is true in the Spanish-speaking world, where a proverb runs: En martes, ni te cases ni te embarques, meaning, "On Tuesday, neither get married nor begin a journey." For both Greeks and Spanish-speakers, the 13th of the month is considered unlucky if it falls on Tuesday, instead of Friday. In Judaism, on the other hand, Tuesday is considered a particularly lucky day, because in the first chapter of Genesis the paragraph about this day contains the phrase "it was good" twice.

In the Eastern Orthodox Church. Tuesdays are dedicated to Saint John the Baptist. The Octoechos contains hymns on this theme, arranged in an eight-week cycle, that are chanted on Tuesdays throughout the year. At the end of Divine Services on Tuesday, the dismissal begins with the words: "May Christ our True God, through the intercessions of his most-pure Mother, of the honorable and glorious Prophet, Forerunner and Baptist John…"

In the folk rhyme Monday's Child, "Tuesday's child is full of grace".

In most of the Indian Languages as well as Nepali and Urdu the word for Tuesday is Mangalwar, with Mangala being the Sanskrit name for the planet Mars.

In the Thai solar calendar, the day is named for the Pali word for the planet Mars, which also means "Ashes of the Dead"; the color associated with Tuesday is Scarlet.

For names in other languages, see Planetary table.

Tuesday is the usual day for elections in the United States. Federal elections take place on the Tuesday after the first Monday in November; this date was established by a law of 1845 for presidential elections (specifically for the selection of the Electoral College), and was extended to elections for the House of Representatives in 1875 and for the Senate in 1914. Tuesday was the earliest day of the week which was practical for polling in the early nineteenth century: citizens might have to travel for a whole day to cast their vote, and would not wish to leave on Sunday which was a day of worship for the great majority of them.

In business, particularly office work, studies have shown that Tuesday is usually the most productive day of the week. Some of these people consider Tuesday to be their least favorite day, because they are not as relaxed as Monday (due to the weekend preceding it), yet they still have most of the work week ahead of them.